The Preamble to the Earth Constitution is an important statement in itself. In a mere 246 words, this Preamble crystallizes our situation in the modern world and lays out the justification for a nonviolent world revolution through world law. The Preamble lays out the “ideals” that are embodied in the Earth Constitution in a practical and entirely realizable way. It is a summary statement of why a new era is absolutely necessary and why the Constitution must be immediately ratified. Let us examine it clause by clause.
Realizing that Humanity today has come to a turning point in history and that we are on the threshold of an new world order which promises to usher in an era of peace, prosperity, justice and harmony….
The Preamble embodies the clear awareness that a new world order is entirely possible simply by eliminating the impediments to civilization that are today creating a nightmare for the peoples of Earth – the so-called system of “sovereign” nation-states and the system of global monopoly capitalism.
We have reached the point in human history, with our huge repository of scientific knowledge and advanced technology, where we face a very realistic choice between utopia and dystopia, between creating a decent world order for all persons and other living creatures or using science and technology to create a totalitarian society of worldwide surveillance, manipulation, and oppression of the majority for the benefit of a few. The latter course will also mean the continued destruction of our planetary biosphere and the likely demise of even the oppressors. At present we are denying our utopian possibility and laying the foundations for dystopia.
There are many signs in poetry, literature, philosophy, and science that ours is a “threshold” age. The first photos of the Earth from space from the early spaceships of the 1960s immediately began to transform human consciousness. From these recent beginnings, this new consciousness has spread rapidly throughout the planet that we are one species living on this tiny, beautiful spaceship of a planet. Today, those photos of the planet from space are everywhere. We are truly on the threshold of an age when the entire planet will unite to solve our common problems and global crises.
Aware of the interdependence of people, nations and all life….
This is the very principle denied by the nation-state system and the fragmented institutions of the modern world that have dominated the Earth from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century. The system of autonomous nation-states, recognizing no enforceable law above themselves and recognizing only voluntary “treaties” as their guide for international conduct, is the antithesis of this principle of interdependence. Yet this principle has been demonstrated by every modern science, from biology to physics to ecology to sociology (Harris 2000). This is the foundational statement for a new paradigm: from hierarchical, militarized fragmentation and mutual destruction to worldwide democratic interdependence and cooperation.
The photos of the Earth from space help make this interdependence clear. No artificial political boundaries appear, only a tiny blue-green home to millions of species and nearly seven billion human beings who are only one of these species. Economic and cultural “globalization” has transformed the world in a very short time. Yet our antiquated system of “sovereign” nation-states fractures our world into autonomous units and defeats the globalization of that which is the greatest legacy of modernity: democracy itself. Without global democracy and the worldwide rule of enforceable law, our interdependence and the other aspects of globalization become destructive and dangerous.
Aware that man’s abuse of science and technology has brought Humanity to the brink of disaster through the production of horrendous weaponry of mass destruction and to the brink of ecological and social catastrophe….
The largest scientific effort in history and throughout the twentieth century has been directed toward the creation of ever more hideous means of destroying people and property, as well as ever-more invasive means of invasion of privacy and spying on helpless populations. Not only “weapons of mass destruction,” but automated, computerized, and mechanized weapons systems of every sort have created a nightmare for the people of Earth. We have witnessed killer pilotless airplane drones, stealth bombers, cruise missiles, laser-guided depleted uranium munitions, and the on-going militarization of space. These same vast resources, more than a trillion U.S. dollars per year throughout the last decades of the twentieth century, could have been used to prevent the ecological catastrophe of global warming now engulfing the Earth, a catastrophe that includes vast extinctions of species, desertification of much of the Earth’s agricultural land, the flooding of the coastlines of the planet, and ever more devastating super-storms and weather disruptions.
Those who wrote the Earth Constitution and those now working for its ratification are directly aware of this insanity and the need to end it now. Weapons of mass destruction carried by intercontinental missiles can circle the globe in twenty minutes, bringing holocaust to entire nations in seconds. The United States is now working on placing such weapons in space. Science and technology, which could be our greatest benefit for creating a decent world order for everyone, including a healthy environment, instead are used to bring us ever closer to the brink of destruction.
Aware that the traditional concept of security through military defense is a total illusion both for the present and for the future….
This truth is only now beginning to sink into the peoples of Earth even though it has been self-evident to thoughtful persons since the development of nuclear weapons at the close of World War Two. The intellectual and moral leaders who expressed this truth at that time, and called for the creation of democratic world government, were ignored. This group included such eminent scientists and intellectuals as Mortimer Adler, Albert Camus, Norman Cousins, Walter Cronkite, Garry Davis, William O. Douglas, Albert Einstein, Robert Muller, and U-Thant (see Tetalman and Belitsos, 2005). Today we reap the whirlwind, the consequences of our arrogant ignorance and refusal to listen as terrorist attacks occur daily worldwide, as superpowers invade and destroy other nations at will, and as global poverty and environmental destruction grow out of control.
Aware of the misery and conflicts caused by ever increasing disparity between rich and poor….
Decade after decade the statistics on this disparity have gotten worse. The world-system of global monopoly capitalism controlled by the imperial nation-states inevitably leads to this result. The promise of “development” through World Bank and IMF loans is now more and more seen for the lie that it truly is (Martin 2005a, chap. 13). It only makes sense that if the vast scientific research and resources of humanity are focused on war and destruction there cannot be the kind of sustainable, equitable development required to end poverty and protect the environment. It only makes sense that if vast banking, corporate, and nation-state monopolies control trade in the interests of their own profits and ascendency, that this disparity will endlessly grow.
Yet the vast propaganda resources of the dominant media and the imperial governments have managed to successfully perpetuate this lie throughout the twentieth century. It is time we based our world order on gigantic truth, not lies. Those who ratify the Constitution know that poverty is not a requirement of the human condition but a social and moral blight that can be readily eliminated if there is a democratic world government really concerned for the common good.
Conscious of our obligation to posterity to save Humanity from imminent and total annihilation….
The ease with which chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction can be created, the growing collapse of the planetary environment, the growing despair of the more than twenty percent of humanity engulfed in lethal “absolute” poverty, the exploding world population, the continuing militarism and deployment of nuclear weapons are dystopian features of the current world system of which all thoughtful persons cannot help be conscious. To honestly face the continuing and impending disasters of the twenty-first century is not alarmism or extremism. It is plain, practical common sense. Unless we act now, there can be no decent future for the Earth or for our children.
Conscious that Humanity is One despite the existence of diverse nations, races, creeds, ideologies and cultures and that the principle of unity in diversity is the basis for a new age when war shall be outlawed and peace prevail; when the earth’s total resources shall be equitably used for human welfare; and when basic human rights and responsibilities shall be shared by all without discrimination….
Once again the Preamble expresses the principle of unity in diversity that is at the heart of all viable democracy and is the basic truth of nature, the universe, and society expressed by every contemporary science. Absolute, sovereign nation-states and monopoly capitalism are both systems of fragmentation and division that deny the truth of this principle. The only viable unity on Earth is that of all the world’s people, for sovereignty resides with the people of Earth and nowhere else. By embracing this unity, we make possible the real commitment to diversity, for only the collective democratic force of the whole can protect the freedom and individuality of all the diverse parts. We will see this principle embodied over and over in the Earth Constitution as we examine it below.
In the “new age” ushered in by the Earth Constitution, “war shall be outlawed and peace prevail.” The peace that will prevail is not simply the absence of war, which scholars refer to as “negative peace.” For the Constitution, as its Preamble implies, ushers in a paradigm shift for the peoples of Earth: a new set of assumptions and new way of looking at our human and planetary situation. This includes the foundational understanding of “unity in diversity” described above. Deriving from this shift to unity in diversity, the concept of peace mentioned here includes what scholars have termed “positive peace,” a peace established so that war is ended altogether and the relations among nations and peoples becomes one of justice, fairness, mutual respect, and affirmation of the value of diversity within the unity of the human project.
This concept of positive peace can be understood in detail through study of the Earth Constitution itself. One understands that the many departments, agencies, and democratic procedures of the Earth Federation government will work together synergistically to promote social, cultural, economic, and political harmony among the peoples of Earth. The enabling legislation passed at various sessions of the Provisional World Parliament bears this out as well.
The World Supreme Court system will establish a worldwide regime of fairness and administration of justice. The World Administration will establish a worldwide educational system teaching unity in diversity, democratic decision making, and universal values education (World Legislative Act # 26). The World Police will establish Conflict Resolution programs in every part of the globe, transforming the current image of the police as representatives of the ruling class into an understanding of the police as the true servants of the people and of peace (WLA # 32).
Finally, the World Ombudsmus, which is tasked to protect human rights worldwide, will include a Truth and Reconciliation Bureau that will offer to establish Truth and Reconciliation Commissions anywhere on Earth where people feel these are needed (WLA # 59). Between the fair administration of justice, the global education for peace and harmony, the planetary conflict resolution programs, and the widespread truth and reconciliation commissions, we begin to understand the meaning of the positive peace established under the Earth Federation government. It will truly be a peace in which “the earth’s total resources shall be equitably used for human welfare; and when basic human rights and responsibilities shall be shared by all without discrimination.”
Conscious of the inescapable reality that the greatest hope for the survival of life on earth is the establishment of a democratic world government; We, citizens of the world, hereby resolve to establish a world federation to be governed in accordance with this constitution for the Federation of Earth.
It is “we citizens of the world” who are responsible for the future, not the illegitimate, fragmented power centers called nation-states, not the greedy, heedless multinational corporations, and not the systems of global banking enslaving humanity with crushing national and international debt. The possibility of a redeemed future lies only with “we citizens of the world,” and only we can ratify and legitimate the Earth Constitution. This action represents both our right and our duty.
The Preamble ends with the affirmation of the most fundamental truth of our epoch: there is no future for the Earth, even for survival on Earth, without democratic world government. It begins with we the people because it represents all peoples, all nations, all cultures, religions, ethnicities, races, and languages. The Constitution for the Federation of Earth represents the concrete, practical key to our survival and future. It establishes a truly new world system, yet one based on the most obvious common sense. It establishes a new paradigm of global harmony and shared responsibility.
2. Article 1: Broad Functions of the Earth Federation
Article I of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth lists the six most basic primary functions of the Federation. Let us examine them in turn: (1) “To prevent war, secure disarmament, and resolve territorial and other disputes which endanger peace and human rights.” No longer could the “cycle of violence” exist where rebellions because of the structural violence of extreme poverty meet with repression from third-world governments financed and supported by first-world governments or with “interventions” by first world military to prevent progressive social change from occurring. Nation-states, like the world government itself, would be disarmed by law, and the process of changing the structural violence of poverty would be open to non-violent methods of conflict resolution such as the courts, demonstrations, social organizing, creative and just economic policies, and so on.
“The World Government for the Federation of the Earth shall be non-military” says Article 2.2. This is not an incidental feature of the Earth Constitution but its very essence. War is an immoral and irrational activity. Its nature is to command soldiers in blind obedience to orders secretly formulated above them to kill some other group designated as the “enemy” or to destroy their life-support systems. The framers of the Constitution understood that if there is ever to be peace in the world then all law must be enforced by civilian police who are themselves required to obey the law. They understood that the law can and must apply only to individuals, not to groups or collective entities designated as “enemies.”
For this reason, Article 10, Section 1, number 1 states that:
The enforcement of world law and world legislation shall apply directly to individuals, and individuals shall be held responsible for compliance with world law and world legislation regardless of whether the individuals are acting in their own capacity or as agents or officials of governments at any level or of the institutions of governments, or as agents or officials of corporations, organizations, associations or groups of any kind.
A central moral and legal principle at the heart of good democratic government lies here. The corruption of today’s corporate capitalism and militarized nation-states rests on the abdication of individual responsibility for criminal actions: destroying other persons and their life support systems under military orders is a criminal activity. Exploiting the poor or damaging the environment in the service of the private accumulation of wealth under orders from one’s employer is a criminal activity. Enslaving people and groups into monetary debt in the service of private banking monopolies is a criminal activity. The world order can only be transformed into a decent one for all persons, that is, into a truly democratic, peaceful global order, if all military organization is abolished and every individual is held personally responsible for his or her actions.
This is the fundamental principle of all morality as well: personal responsibility for one’s actions. We should be morally and legally responsible for how we treat other people and nature whether on the job, in the market place, or at home. And the very first premise of creating personal responsibility for the people of Earth must be the abolition of all military service which trains people to kill and destroy in blind obedience, thereby fostering the antithesis of moral and legal personal responsibility.
(2) The second primary function of the federation will be “To protect universal human rights, including life, liberty, security, democracy, and equal opportunities in life.” Again, the very foundations of the world federal government would allow the progressive transformation of institutionalized violence and exploitation, protecting the security of those who militate for change, and allowing them to legally base their claim for just economic and social institutions on the right to equal opportunities in life. The idea of equal opportunity today is a bold-faced lie under the capitalist, debt-driven monopoly system in which nearly 60% of humanity live in structural systems of deprivation that radically constrict their life prospects (without sanitation, clean water, health-care, adequate housing, education, financial resources, or employment possibilities).
(3) “To obtain for all people on Earth the conditions required for equitable economic and social development and for diminishing social differences.” The Constitution specifies its affirmation of cultural diversity and local autonomy in other places (for example, Article 13.16), but here we see concern to diminish the “social differences” of the present system of wealth and power versus the poor and exploited. The mandate of the world government, stated repeatedly in the Constitution, is “equal opportunity for useful employment for everyone, with wages or remuneration sufficient to assure human dignity” (Article 13.1), in other words, to end the extremes of poverty and wealth worldwide as we know them. When today a mere 225 persons have a combined wealth of the bottom 3.5 billion people on Earth, then corruption has reached its apex. These criminal systems must be abolished and transformed into genuine democracy for all the Earth’s citizens.
The remaining three “broad functions” of the Federation would again work in favor of the socialist struggle for a fully realized human community:
(4) To regulate world trade, (5) To protect the environment and the ecological fabric of life from all damage, (6) To devise and implement solutions to all problems which are beyond the capability of national governments, or which are now or may become of global or international concern or consequence.
World trade would no longer easily interfere with the rights of every person to a life of dignity with a home, security, health-care, and opportunity (Article 13, numbers 4-7 and 11-13). The exploitation of the poor by multinational corporations would be brought to a rapid end with the regulation of world trade, and the destruction of the global environment though multinational exploitation of resources would be quickly ended (and can only be quickly ended) through the power of the Earth Federation. Local, sustainable systems of production and consumption would be developed, limiting “world trade” to those commodities and resources necessary for equitable, sustainable development everywhere on Earth.
For the first time, a consistent set of worldwide laws regarding the environment would be enacted, enforced by the world police armed only with weapons sufficient to apprehend individuals. (“World Police shall be armed only with weapons appropriate for the apprehension of individuals responsible for the violation of world law” (Article 10.3.5).) No longer would the poor nations have to sacrifice their environmental standards to attract rapacious corporations to their resources. International debt will be assumed by the Federation and rapidly paid off in Earth Currency and under terms determined by the Federation. A government concerned with global prosperity within the framework of environmental sustainability would be initiated for the first time in history.
These articles also give the world government the means to raise capital to be used for the global common good through taxes, fees, and other ways of generating federal income. The present system of capitalism, unregulated by enforceable world laws, cannot with any effectiveness create investment capital capable of promoting the common good, whether within nations or globally. For competition (which is directed to private advantage) will always force private investment capital in the direction of a high enough rate of return to (1) stay in business and (2) make a profit for the private benefit of the wealthy investors. The pressure of the market also mandates (3) continual growth, for as technology and competitors evolve and the rate of return drops, without a continual eye to growth businesses will tend to fail.
Sustainable development is not likely under this system, for the incentive is to neglect, for example, the impact of production on the environment or communities in order to maximize growth and protect the rate of profit (Daly 1996). World government, on the other hand, will be free of this irrational and destructive pressure now compromising corporations and territorial nation-states. It will be able to invest directly in the common good (the good that makes possible the survival and flourishing of all the parts of the whole) (Martin 2005b).
On the planetary level, the common good has taken on a deeper meaning than within nation-states where it rarely has the seriousness of survival itself. Many global problems, including global wealth and poverty, global militarism and lawlessness, and global environmental preservation, are “beyond the capacity of national governments” to address. The World Constitution provides the only viable hope for humanity to move in the direction of non-military democratic world of justice, peace, sustainability, and prosperity.
3. The World Parliament
The Sovereignty and democratic authority of the people of Earth is invested in the World Parliament that has the responsibility for protecting the Constitution and governing the Earth Federation. The Earth Federation creates a parliamentary system in which ultimate law-making authority lies with the World Parliament. The judiciary, executive branch, police, and other functions of government fall under the authority of the World Parliament. In a pacified and just world order, there will be no need for an executive branch to control vast, unaccountable power (as in the United States) in case of war or other emergency. Under the Constitution, the Parliament consists of three houses: the House of Nations, the House of Peoples, and the House of Counselors.
The House of Nations represents all the nations of the Earth. Every nation will have one, two, or three representatives in the House of Nations, depending on population. The largest nations, therefore, will have three representatives, while even the smallest will have one. This concession to the size of nations in terms of population is, of course, appropriate if this house of Parliament is to be truly representative of the nations of Earth. As is often pointed out, this feature of the Earth Constitution makes the House of Nations similar in function to the Senate in the system of the United States, where each state in the U.S. federal structure has its own direct representatives in the legislature.
Steps have been taken by the Provisional World Parliament to make this more equitable as regards the huge nations of the Earth such as China, India, and the USA. Because of the size of the House of Nations (perhaps three hundred representatives) whether or not new nations are formed that have a vote and a voice in Parliament will not be a major issue. The tendency will be to want to have a many voices represented as possible, since it is precisely a voice and mechanism for having one’s needs and interests represented that undercuts the perceived need for violent or subversive attitudes towards other nations or the Earth Federation.
The Parliament may well welcome new nations into the community of nations: the Palestinians, for example, and the Kurds. Protecting national “sovereign” territory, and oppressing dissenting groups within nation-states, will no longer be considered necessary for the preservation of the “motherland.” Nation-state-hood will no longer be raised to the level of a mythical god-like idol, to be worshiped and preserved at all costs, as it often is under the current world system. The new attitude toward nationhood under the Constitution can and must also apply to the present collection of nation-states. The present demand that they be preserved at all costs will no longer appear compelling.
At the literal level, the Earth Constitution appears to take the existing set of nation-states as the states that would populate the House of Nations, allotting three representatives to the nations with over 100,000,000 population, etc. However, the Provisional World Parliament has recognized that the democratic spirit of the Constitution intimates that the three giant federations that comprise much of the territory and population of Earth would skew the democratic intent behind the House of Nations and the World Parliament. The Provisional World Parliament is working on formulating official recommendations that the House of Nations be conceived so as to treat the cantons of China, the Pradesh of India, and the states within the United States as separate nations, each having its own representative(s) within the House of Nations.
This would increase the democratic equality of the peoples who live within these three giant federations, since the size of their populations would actually require many more than three representatives each in the House of Nations. Under this understanding of the democratic intent of the Constitution, the United States, for example, would have approximately 50 representatives in the House of Nations, rather than three. The Pradesh of India, several of which have populations over 100,000,000, would each have three representatives in the House. This would be the same for China, and perhaps elsewhere.
The second house in the tri-cameral World Parliament is the House of Peoples. One representative will be directly elected by the people from each of 1000 electoral districts worldwide. The electoral districts will be apportioned by population and will conform as far as feasible to existing national boundaries. The people of the Earth in their vast diversity will be directly represented in the World Parliament through 1000 representatives in the House of Peoples.
Like the other houses of Parliament, this house may meet separately or in joint session with the other houses. The Constitution defines the parameters and responsibilities of each of the Houses as separate houses and as part of the combined World Parliament. This system of direct representation of the people in districts apportioned by population is often compared with the House of Representatives within the U.S. internal governance system.
As the population of the Earth continues to explode uncontrollably, the number of persons represented by each of the 1000 representatives in the House of Peoples increases. As the population of the Earth approaches seven billion in this year of 2009, there is, of course, great cause for concern among thoughtful people. Economists and thinkers concerning ecological sustainability such as Herman E. Daly (1996) estimate a sustainable population for the Earth at perhaps 2-3 billion persons. At the time the Constitution was being written the Earth had about 3.5 billion population. Today, that figure has nearly doubled.
The Constitution was written to prevent such uncontrollable disasters. However, as time passes and the Earth sinks ever farther into environmental disaster, military disaster, population disaster, and the disaster of poverty, disease, and misery, the task before the initial World Parliament and government of the Earth Federation becomes ever-more immense and formidable. The more time that passes before ratification, the more immense the crises faced by the Earth Federation government, and, at the same time, the more it becomes clear that this is our only viable option.
The same is true of population in relation to the 1000 representatives in the House of Peoples. At a seven billion population for the Earth, this calculates to one representative for every seven million people. Even though the offices of each representative will be very well staffed and designed to interact with the people in his or her constituency, this remains an untenable number of people for each representative. The initial world government could, of course, amend the Constitution according to the procedures set forth in Article 18. It could modify the House of Peoples to create, for example, 2000 persons and electoral districts.
But the early world government will likely be working through the Earth Emergency Rescue Administration outlined by the Provisional World Parliament to deal with all the above named global crises, including voluntary, non-coercive population reduction programs. It may be before long the population of the Earth will return to a sustainable size and the 1000 electoral districts and representatives will function very efficiently. Even though the legislative acts passed by the Provisional World Parliament are not binding on the final World Parliament once the Constitution has been ratified, the delegates of the Provisional World Parliament are making every effort to facilitate the work of the World Parliament through legislative measures addressing the multiple, growing global crises faced by the Earth.
Anticipating these growing crises that the initial World Parliament will face, the Provisional World Parliament passed an Education Act at its Eighth Session in which every public school in the Earth Federation will integrate into its curriculum discussion of sustainability, the population crisis, and quality of life issues. This program will be part of a massive educational effort on internet, radio, and television that may alone rapidly influence the people of Earth to reduce family sizes. Other steps, such as linking the interest on development loans from the Earth Federation to the nations to the success of nations in limiting population growth, have also been considered by the Provisional World Parliament.
The Eighth Session of the Provisional World Parliament also passed an act creating a Global People’s Assembly to complement and activate democratic participation and representation within the framework of the present structure of the House of Peoples. The Global Peoples’ Assembly sets up mechanisms to draw in grass roots participation from the local neighborhood or village level up through regional levels and integrates this participation into the system of representatives to the House of Peoples. In this way democracy becomes a real and effective force worldwide and the House of Peoples is strengthened in its role as the direct voice of the people within the Earth Federation. The Global Peoples’ Assembly feature of the Earth Federation will greatly enhance the democratic responsiveness of the House of Peoples even at an Earth population of seven billion persons.
The third house is the House of Counselors. This feature of the Earth Constitution is a brilliant and unique innovation to the concept of parliamentary democracy. For the House of Counselors is intended to represent the good of the whole, the public interest of the entire planet, the common good. World democracy requires not simply representatives who serve particular interests (whether the people of an electoral district or the interests of a nation-state), but wise, highly educated persons who are concerned with the common good of the Earth, its environmental integrity, its suitability as a home for all the Earth’s creatures, and the well-being of future generations.
The candidates for the House of Counselors are nominated by the students and faculty from all universities worldwide and elected by the other two houses of Parliament, ten persons each from twenty administrative districts worldwide. The Counselors do not have to reside in the districts that elect them. They are to represent the whole, the common good, the public interest. This feature of the Earth Constitution brings democracy itself to an entirely new level, beyond anything that has gone before. These 200 Counselors will act as part of the combined World Parliament, which will consist of about 1500 representatives altogether.
Their separate function will be largely for nominating candidates for office of the world government within the World Judiciary, World Executive, World Attorneys General and Police and World Ombudsmus, to be elected by a plurality vote of the three houses of Parliament in joint session. Counselors may also introduce world legislation to Parliament to be debated and voted upon, as will all world legislation, by the three houses in joint session. They may also introduce advisory or scientific documents into the World Parliament as needed by the Parliament to conduct the business of the Earth Federation with the appropriate knowledge and wisdom.
As mentioned above, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth establishes a parliamentary system for democratic, federal world government. This is particularly significant for ensuring democracy at the mundial level. The supreme authority of government is invested in the World Parliament, itself organized to represent the diverse voices of the people and nations of Earth. Democracy is brought to a new level, free of the special interests and inordinate power that an independent executive inevitably represents.
The Provisional World Parliament at its 13th Session approved an act to create the Collegium of World Legislators (WLA # 57). This Collegium sets up a mandatory process of training for all legislators in the three houses of Parliament. All members of Parliament will be instructed in nonviolent communication and in forms of dialogue directed toward mutual understanding. The Collegium will also facilitate meetings among the legislators: conferences, dialogues, informal discussions, and the dissemination of important information. The very nature of being a member of Parliament will be transformed from today’s combative and strategic maneuvering to a spirit of collaboration for the common good and equal participation of all peoples in self-government for the Earth.
The system does not try to “balance” power between an executive branch, a judicial branch, and a legislative branch of government. For the three houses of the World Parliament are already balanced to democratically represent all possible constituencies of the Earth. The legislative branch (institutionalized so that no group or constituency can assume excessive power) is directly involved in a number of ways in the running of the four main branches of government that report to it: the World Judiciary, the World Executive, the World Attorneys General and Police, and the World Ombudsmus.
The framers of the Constitution understood that a parliamentary system is the best expression of democracy in a world that has eliminated the nation-state-war system. Indeed, ratification of the Constitution will initiate a new world order that eliminates the present war system at the heart of today’s world disorder. The Constitution not only creates a demilitarized world and prohibits any military for the Earth Federation itself, but it institutionalizes a new economic, administrative, and legal order that removes all economic, political, and national incentives for militarism and war.
Just as the system of sovereign nation-states, with its institutionalized insecurity as well as inherent imperial systems of economic domination and exploitation, is the root cause of war, so a new economic and political order under a federation of nations will eliminate the root causes of war. A parliamentary democracy for the world reflects this new order in a direct, democratic way.
We have seen that the present world system is a war system in which nations find their very existence threatened by the possibility of invasion from non-democratic neighboring states, subversion and destabilization by terrorist forces, a never-ending arms race to keep up with other nations in destructive (military) power, or imperial domination by the large and powerful nations of the world. The history of nation-states over the past five centuries shows that nations tend to fall into the trap of the present world system that creates political, economic, and practical incentives for military readiness and organization.
In practice this means that nation-states tend to rely on an executive branch that has authority over the military and administrative branches of government. In a dangerous world, where external and internal subversion or attack many happen at any time, nations feel that power must be invested in a branch of government that has the authority to deal with these dangers. In today’s world, therefore, the legislative branch of government (that in democracy is often the most direct voice of the people) is subordinate to the executive. It should be clear that no genuine democracy can or does exist in a dangerous, militarized world characterized by the threats of terrorism, subversion, invasion, domination, or war.
Repeatedly, under the nation-state-war system, we have seen the executive branch become dictatorial, bring the nations into wars, perpetuate secrets and deceits even from its own people, produce corrupt and self-serving leaders, or sacrifice internal freedoms to the need for security. Even the United States, which once seemed a beacon of democracy and freedom to oppressed peoples worldwide, is today seen as a dictatorial center of empire run by an imperial executive branch and a bloated military-security apparatus that are the very antitheses of democracy. The election of Barack Obama as President did not, and could not, change the structurally embedded nature of this anti-democratic system that, since the Second World War, has invested so much militarized power in its executive branch.
Under the Earth Constitution there is no need for a powerful executive branch with command over a ready military and security apparatus. Not only are the economic and political incentives for such a system removed, but the parliamentary system is set up so that the executive branch of government has need of very little power of this kind. The World Executive has no military power (for all military is illegal under the Constitution), no police power (for the civilian police are a separate organ of government accountable, like the executive, to the Parliament), no power to suspend the Constitution in a state of emergency, and no power to refuse to administer and spend the budget allocated to it by Parliament.
Under this system, the World Parliament is truly the democratic voice the people and nations of the world and institutionalizes a system in which world problems can be dealt with effectively without danger to the democratic structures of government itself. Since the greatest internal danger in any democracy comes from investing executive powers in a few persons (such as Prime Ministers or Presidents), or from a standing military that may take action into its own hands or inordinately influence the policies of the executive branch, the Earth Constitution sees to it that this danger is permanently removed from government. The war system of autonomous nation-states is forever abolished with the advent of the second stage of the Earth Federation, and the government of the Federation itself is designed to forever prevent inordinate power from accruing in the hands of any few persons.
4. The World Courts
A World Supreme Court is established by the Constitution, and the Parliament may also establish district and regional World Courts as necessary for a properly functioning, efficient, and just world court system. No democracy can function without an impartial, non-politicized, efficient judicial system. Democracy is precisely that governmental mechanism through which orderly change can continually occur without people having to find recourse through violence or revolution.
To be effective, people’s needs and interests must really be represented through the legislative process. That is, they must have their voices heard and their interests really represented. This is the function of the World Parliament (as well as several other organs created by the Earth Constitution). Nations and groups will not resort to violence if they have a real voice in the affairs of the world and a real power of democratic self-determination that is protected by the Earth Federation.
Secondly, their disputes, conflicts, and misunderstandings must be resolved nonviolently through an impartial, fair, and efficient judicial system. Such a system of courts on the world level is one of the keys to world peace. This becomes clear if we consider the eight benches of the World Supreme Court set up by the Constitution.
(1) The Bench for Human Rights will deal with claims that human rights have been violated as these are guaranteed under Articles 12 and 13 of the Constitution. It is the function of the World Supreme Court to uphold the Constitution for the Federation of Earth and therefore ensure the protection of human rights globally as specified in Articles 12 and 13.
Unlike the present, nearly worldwide, system, the right to private property is not the foundation of all other rights in this Constitution. The wonderful list of inalienable rights in Article 12 mentions private property only in number 16: “safety of property from arbitrary seizure” (from the government or anyone else). This clearly guarantees personal property, and the right to accumulate personal property. However, within the context of all the other dozens of rights provided for by Articles 12 and 13, it is clear that the right to private property will not be an unlimited right to private accumulation of wealth at the expense of nature and other people, which is the foundation of the present world system.
For the courts to protect human rights means that the courts will protect human freedom and well-being. They will not sacrifice both of these, as in the present system, to the false god of unlimited private property rights. There is no hint in the Constitution that everyone will have the same, or even nearly the same, amount of property. However, the framework weighs clearly in favor of a world in which the freedom and well-being of the majority cannot be sacrificed to the unlimited wealth and power of the few. Like the world Ombudsmus, and unlike the present court system within most countries, the world courts will really protect human rights and well-being. We have here yet another foundation of the world peace system created by the Constitution.
The WCPA continues to be in contact periodically with the International Criminal Court (ICC) that has been developed under the Rome Statute sponsored by the Assembly of States Parties for several decades. Since the International Court of Justice (ICJ), also in the Hague, is concerned only with d-states (subject to the voluntary agreement of the disputing states), the ICC represents an admirable attempt to hold individuals responsible for crimes against humanity, war crimes, or crimes against peace. However, the ICC is similarly hamstrung by the system of so-called sovereign nation-states from which (its statues state) it can only “request” evidence or extradition of suspects, etc. No true court, of course, “requests” such things, but rather orders them, using its power of mandamus: the court order.
The Provisional World Parliament has studied some of the excellent statutes of the ICC (such as its statutes on human rights, its penal code, and its rules of procedure and evidence), rewritten them in the language of a true, constitutionally empowered court, and passed them as provisional World Legislative Acts. The WCPA periodically attempts to communicate with the ICC and its States-Parties sponsors that the court could be immeasurably empowered by affiliating with the World Court System under the Earth Constitution.
Between 31 May and 11 June 2010, the first Review Conference on the Rome Statute that guides the operations of the International Criminal Court was held in Kampala, Uganda. This meeting is to be distinguished from the annual meetings of the Assembly of States Parties: the nations who have signed the treaty empowering the ICC. The Review Conference will consider amendments and elaborations of the Rome Statute as recommended by various nations in the Assembly of States Parties. WCPA representatives were in Uganda with copies of the Constitution, urging the authorities there that a world under the true rule of law can be greatly enhanced by linking the court with the Earth Constitution.
(2) The Bench for Criminal Cases will deal with “issues arising from the violation of world laws and world legislation by individuals, corporations, groups and associations, but not issues primarily concerned with human rights.” Corporate polluters of the environment will be jailed; terrorists will be prosecuted and jailed; anyone dealing in weapons of war (design, transport, buying, selling, or deploying) will be prosecuted and jailed. The multi-billion dollar per year scourge of human trafficking for sexual and slave-labor purposes will be brought to an end. Currently there is no enforceable world law and such persons often act with impunity. The World Court system will bring the rule of law to the world for the first time.
(3) The Bench for Civil Cases will “deal with issues involving civil law suits and disputes between individuals, corporations, groups and associations arising under world legislation and world law and the administration thereof.” Again and again disputes arise within any society. We do not live in a perfect world and the Earth Constitution does not project an unrealizable utopia, but rather a fully attainable practical utopia.
It is absolutely important to have an impartial judiciary enforcing both the Constitution and the laws enacted by the World Parliament under its authority. What is needed includes the Collegium of highly trained World Judges, created by the Constitution, who can make binding, just decisions and therefore undercut both the drive toward violence and the drive toward criminal disdain for the law. This is precisely what is lacking in the contemporary world, despite the well-meaning existence of the ICJ and ICC.
(4) The Bench for Constitutional Cases will “deal with the interpretation of the World Constitution and with issues and actions arising in connection with the interpretation of the World Constitution.” All thoughtful people understand that no document, whether this be a sacred text like the Bible, or an Earth Constitution, can be written without ambiguity, without being open to various interpretations in some passages, and without the need for a procedure to deal with ambiguities. The Bench for Constitutional cases will play an absolutely crucial role in the protection of the Constitution and the integrity of the Earth Federation.
(5) The Bench for International Conflicts will “deal with disputes, conflicts and legal contest arising between or among the nations which have joined in the Federation of Earth.” A forerunner of this bench, as mentioned above, already exists in the form of the International Court of Justice in The Hague that is mandated to deal with disputes between nations. The differences, however, are also immense.
For a court to be effective in preserving the peace and good will among the community of nations its jurisdiction must be mandatory, it must have the power of subpoena, the power of ordering hearings concerning evidence, and the power of making binding, enforceable decisions. As we have seen, the International Court of Justice in the Hague, attempting to operate as it does under the unworkable system of nation-states, has none of these powers and is therefore impotent to keep the peace and good will among nations.
Under the Earth Federation, if nations have disputes that threaten to endanger world peace, the Bench for International Conflicts of the World Court may subpoena representatives of the disputing parties to a hearing concerning the dispute. The World Court System, like the rest of the Earth Federation, is part of a peace system in which the parts synergistically work together to assure peace and prevent wars or violent conflicts of any kind.
(6) The Bench for Public Cases must “deal with issues not under the jurisdiction of another bench arising from conflicts, disputes, civil suits or other legal contests between the World Government and corporations, groups or individuals, or between national governments and corporations, groups or individuals in cases involving world legislation and world law.” In other words, whenever there is conflict in the world, there must be a court in existence that can justly deal with this conflict and thereby inhibit both violence and criminality. The Bench for Public Cases is meant to cover all cases not specific to the other benches of the World Supreme Court system.
(7) The Appellate Bench is designed to “deal with issues involving world legislation and world law which may be appealed from national courts; and to decide which bench to assign a case or action or litigation when a question or disagreement arises over the proper jurisdiction.” In other words, it is an appeal bench that may operate when litigants are not satisfied with the decisions of lower courts.
(8) The Advisory Bench must “give opinions upon request on any legal question arising under world law or world legislation, exclusive of contests or actions involving interpretation of the World Constitution. Advisory opinions may be requested by any House or committee of the World Parliament, by the Presidium, any Administrative Department, the Office of World Attorneys General, the World Ombudsmus, or by any agency of the Integrative Complex.” Judges within the Collegium of World Judges will be highly trained experts on the Earth Constitution and the functioning of the Earth Federation. This final bench will make their expertise available to the organs of the Earth Federation, including the World Parliament, as an aid in making intelligent decisions or passing good world legislation.
It should be clear that all these eight benches of the World Supreme Court serve functions vital to the maintenance of a decent, law abiding world society. The amazing thing is that none of them exists today. Under the system of so-called “sovereign” nation-states, there is only anarchy, the use of violence or threat of violence, deceptive political maneuvering for position or bargaining power, unenforceable treaty agreements that may or may not be honored, or the arbitrary veto by one of the five big powers on the Security Council of the United Nations. A world without a World Court System such as the above is a world of terror, war, violence, and anarchy, exactly the world we see before us today.
5. The World Attorneys General and Police
Every society employs public prosecutors who work with the police in gathering evidence regarding those suspected of violating the law, serving arrest warrants, and prosecuting the alleged offenders. Under the Earth Constitution this dual function (of police and prosecutors) serves as one of the four main branches of government responsible to the World Parliament. The World Attorney General, the four Associate World Attorneys General, and the twenty Regional Attorneys General are all nominated by the House of Counselors and elected by a simple majority vote of the World Parliament in combined session.
They in turn appoint the World Regional Police Captains. However, this system of enforcement for the Earth Federation has an additional function not often found in national enforcement systems. In addition to the functions of investigation, apprehension and arrest, prosecution, and remedies and correction, we have seen above that the world enforcement system also specifies “conflict resolution.” The enforcement system of the Earth Federation will have as its goal the minimization of conflict not only through formal systems of conflict resolution, a just system of federal world courts, and a truly representative world parliament, but through an “enforcement system” that is designed to promote nonviolent means of conflict resolution and to enforce world law with an absolute minimum of violence.
To facilitate the intent of the Earth Constitution with regard to its emphasis on human dignity, equality, and conflict resolution, the Provisional World Parliament has passed World Legislative Act #32, (see www.worldproblems.net) creating a Department of Conflict Resolution in which the World Ombudsmus and the World Police, under the supervision of the World Parliament, will work together to assure that all parties to conflict are respected in their human rights and dignity and provide a forum where genuine dialogue, directed toward mutual respect and understanding can take place.
By constitutional law, there will be no military or military police in the Earth Federation. There will only be civilian police trained to serve the public and perform their duties with a minimum of violence and careful protection from harm of innocent bystanders. This distinction is crucial. Military and military police do not serve the public but rather an absolute command structure in which some “enemy” is designated to whom they are ordered to do lethal harm. This is the old war system in which harm to a designated “enemy” through lethal means is acceptable in today’s world, as is “collateral” damage to innocent bystanders, in the course of achieving some military objective.
Civilian police, on the other hand, are accountable to civilian authorities precisely for protection of the innocent and the use of the minimum necessary force to apprehend lawbreakers. The two systems are entirely different. Secondly, the military system targets collective enemies – some other nation-state or some collectively defined groups who are designated the “enemy” to be militarily destroyed or dominated. We have seen that the first “basic principle” of the enforcement system under the Earth Constitution is to hold individuals responsible for their actions no matter what organization or government they are working for.
The world system of war and militarism of today is predicated on the destruction of entire groups as designated “enemies.” A civilized world order under the rule of law bases enforcement on individuals alone. As one of the main organs of government reporting to the World Parliament, the world enforcement system will be qualitatively different from most national enforcement systems and all militarized enforcement systems. For as we have seen, the entire apparatus of the world government is designed to end war and promote the living together on Earth of individuals, nations, cultures, religions, and ethnic groupings. The enforcement system is also constructed according to this goal of positive peace.
The Constitution puts this as follows:
A basic condition for preventing outbreaks of violence which the Enforcement System shall facilitate in every way possible, shall be to assure a fair hearing under non-violent circumstances for any person or group having a grievance, and likewise to assure a fair opportunity for a just settlement of any grievance with due regard for the rights and welfare of all concerned.
In a just and nonviolent world order, the attorneys general and police will function to promote peace, freedom, and democratic law. They will not be seen as oppressors or enemies as is often the case with police and militaries within today’s nation-states. In a just world system, there will be no need for massive surveillance and spying on populations worldwide as is done today by the NSA and other agencies of the US government.
6. The World Ombudsmus
We have seen that one unique feature of the Earth Constitution is the House of Counselors as one house of the World Parliament concerned with the common good of humanity and the Earth. Another unique feature is the World Ombudsmus as one of the four principle organs of government under the World Parliament. The World Ombudsmus is yet another aspect of the Earth Constitution that will create a new just, prosperous, and peaceful world order for the Earth.
The first two functions of the World Ombudsmus are the following: (1) To protect the People of Earth and all individuals against violations or neglect of universal human and civil rights which are stipulated in Article 12 and other sections of this World Constitution. Article 12 provides a comprehensive list of protections for information, assembly, speech, press, religion, travel, habeas corpus, etc. It also specifies the right to privacy and freedom from surveillance as a means of political control. (2) To protect the People of Earth against violations of this World Constitution by any official or agency of the World Government, including both elected and appointed officials, or public employees regardless of organ, department, office, agency or rank. An entire branch of government, with the power of investigation, subpoena, and initiating court actions, is directed toward the protection of human rights, not only from national or group forces that might violate these rights but from the world government itself.
As with the World Attorneys General, the Council of five World Ombudsmen is nominated by the House of Counselors and elected by the three houses of the World Parliament in joint session. These functions of the World Ombudsmus harmonize with the functions of the Parliament, the Courts, and the Enforcement System in their emphasis on human rights, the responsibility of individuals (not groups or nations) before the law, the creation of institutions of mediation and conflict resolution, and the construction of a just and peaceful world order.
The World Ombudsmus is also directly concerned with the second bill of rights in the Constitution (Article 13). Article 13 is entitled “Directive Principles” for world government because it deals with economic, social, and environmental rights that will not be immediately enforceable when the Earth Constitution is first ratified and the newly created Earth Federation must deal with the mess of poverty, violence, injustice, and environmental destruction left behind by the old system of “sovereign” nation-states in league with global monopoly capitalism.
To this end, the third and fourth principles of the World Ombudsmus state the following:
(3) To press for the implementation of the Directive Principles for the World Government as defined in Article 13 of this World Constitution. (4) To promote the welfare of the people of Earth by seeking to assure that conditions of social justice and of minimizing disparities are achieved in the implementation and administration of world legislation and world law.
The World Ombudsmus is one of the four main branches of the world government directly responsible to the World Parliament. Its function is to activate the highest potential embodied within the Constitution for a world of peace, prosperity, freedom, and justice. The Constitution does not represent a set of ideals that are unrealizable. It is internally designed to realize the very ideals that are embodied in the noble words of the Preamble. As we saw above, this agency will also sponsor Truth and Reconciliation Commissions wherever on Earth these may be needed. Justice, reconciliation, human rights, and human dignity will be foundational principles worldwide under the Earth Constitution.
Since the two bills of rights in the Constitution (Articles 12 and 13, described below), provide not only the complete range of civil liberties and freedoms but also the second and third generation rights that substantially transform our world from one of immense violence, poverty, and environmental destruction to one of nonviolence, reasonable prosperity and environmental sustainability, the worldwide offices of the World Ombudsmus represent a necessary feature of the Earth Federation. An entire branch of government will be necessary and fundamental to the genuine conversion of our present destructive world disorder to a truly peaceful, prosperous, and sustainable world order.
7. The World Executive
The World Executive consists of a Presidium of five persons, one from each continental division, nominated by the House of Counselors and elected by a simple majority vote of the World Parliament in joint session. The World Executive Cabinet of an additional twenty to thirty persons, two or three from each of the ten world magna-regions, are nominated by the Presidium and elected by the Parliament in joint session. All twenty-five persons must be members of one of the three houses of the World Parliament. The twenty members of the Executive Cabinet are appointed as Ministers to head the agencies of the world government in the Integrative Complex or the World Administration.
We have seen that the World Presidium (as head of the World Executive branch) has no police or military powers, no court or judicial powers, no legislative powers, no power to declare a state of emergency suspending the Constitution, and no power to refuse to implement the budget. Limitations on the World Executive are explicitly formulated in the Constitution:
The World Executive shall not at any time alter, suspend, abridge, infringe or otherwise violate any provision of this World Constitution or any legislation or world law enacted or approved by the World Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this World Constitution. The World Executive shall not have veto power over any legislation passed by the World Parliament,…may not dissolve the World Parliament,…may not act contrary to decisions of the World Courts. The World Executive shall be bound to faithfully execute all legislation passed by the World Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this World Constitution, and may not impound or refuse to spend funds appropriated by the World Parliament, nor spend more funds than are appropriated by the World Parliament. The World Executive may not transcend or contradict the decisions or controls of the World Parliament, the World Judiciary or the Provisions of this World Constitution by any device of executive order or executive privilege or emergency declaration or decree.
These series of explicit limitations show a deep awareness in the framers of the Constitution of the dangers inherent in any executive function. The World Executive does have the power to appoint heads of the agencies and departments of the Integrative Complex and World Administration. The Executive is responsible to make up a budget for the operations of the Earth Federation and submit it to Parliament. The Executive may frame and submit legislation to the World Parliament and is responsible for annual reporting to Parliament. Such authority needs this sort of careful and explicit limitations placed upon it.
However, it is important to note that there is no world president or individual head of the world government. The Presidium of five acts by consensus or by vote, occasionally in conjunction with a vote of the entire Executive Cabinet. This feature of the Constitution serves to promote the sense of a collective effort by a professional ministerial and civil service to efficiently maintain the operations of the world government and democratically implement the legislative decisions of the World Parliament. This insight is also behind the Constitutional descriptions of the functions of the various agencies of the Integrative Complex and World Administration. This intent for the functioning of the executive branch of the Earth Federation is made explicit in the following way:
The World Administration shall be composed of professionally organized departments and other agencies in all areas of activity requiring continuity of administration and implementation by the World Government….Each Senior Administrator shall be nominated by the Minister of the particular Department or agency from among persons in the senior lists of the World Civil Service Administration, as soon as senior lists have been established by the World Civil Service Administration, and shall be confirmed by the Presidium. Temporary qualified appointments shall be made by the Ministers, with confirmation by the Presidium, pending establishment of the senior lists.
The Earth Federation is to be run efficiently and competently by qualified professionals accountable to the World Executive who in turn is responsible to the World Parliament. The World Civil Service Administration shall:
Formulate and define standards, qualifications, tests, examinations and salary scales for the personnel of all organs, departments, bureaus, offices, commissions and agencies of the World Government, in conformity with the provisions of this World Constitution and requiring approval by the Presidium and Executive Cabinet, subject to review and approval by the World Parliament.
Since heads of governmental agencies are also members of the World Parliament, the Constitution sets up the requirement that there be continuous communication between each agency (staffed by qualified professionals) and the Parliament. No longer will there be, as in the United States and many other countries, political appointments of unqualified persons to important posts, fomenting inefficiency, waste, and ideologically driven administrative practices. No longer will there be the corruption that attends unaccountable power. Every person can be removed for cause according to constitutionally defined due process procedures. The stage is set for government that is really democratic, really directed toward service to the people of Earth, and really able to serve the common good of everyone as well as future generations.
8. Article 12: The First Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights of the Earth Constitution specifies as “inalienable” a list of eighteen rights, the first of which is “equal rights for all citizens of the Federation of Earth, with no discrimination on grounds of race, color, caste, nationality, sex, religion, political affiliation, property, or social status.” A major achievement of the Earth Federation, as well as genuine democracy, will be the effective realization of equality before the law for all the citizens of the Earth. Within most nation-states today, there is very little equality before the law. The rich get away with criminal activities that hurt countless people while the poor are incarcerated for the most minor of offenses.
This seemingly self-evident requirement of any bill of rights treat everyone equally is violated by every nation-state in yet another way. They all legislate rights only for their own citizens while effectively denying the rights of all other peoples on Earth. Either rights are inalienably held by all persons equally or they are a lie and a sham. To claim that “inalienable human rights” are only valid on a territorial basis is false and dishonest. The nation-state system, like the United Nations that represents it, makes a mockery of the concept of universal, inalienable rights.
The persons of the Earth Federation are not only guaranteed the usual democratic political rights of freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, habeas corpus, and due process of law, they are also guaranteed rights that are now routinely violated by all nations under the barbaric system of nation-states. Article 12 also guarantees:
Freedom to travel without passport or visas or other forms of registration….Prohibition against military conscription…. Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment…. Prohibition against private armies and paramilitary organizations as being threats to the common peace and safety….and the right to family planning and free public assistance to achieve family planning objectives.
The violation of the right of citizens of this Earth to travel is a disgrace of the modern system of nation-states. The visa system is a criminal attack on our dignity and freedom as human beings. The right to travel is at the very heart of democracy and the restriction of this right is one reason why under the nation-state system no reasonably authentic democracy exists anywhere in the world.
The supposed right of national governments to conscript young people into their criminal war-making system is another disgrace of the nation-state system. To require of young people public work for the nation as a civic duty is a wonderful idea. To make of them trained killers and destroyers of other peoples on Earth (or, in some nations, of their own fellow citizens) is the most corrupt of criminal acts. In democratic countries people supposedly have a vote, but their vote is meaningless to deal with the most pressing problems of humanity that are beyond the scope of any nation. People vote on secondary domestic issues while they are forced to fight in foreign wars that are beyond their democratic decision-making power, and forced to endure global climate collapse or global economic forces that are beyond the scope of every government.
Individual persons are disenfranchised under this system. Their vote cannot give them freedom from war, nor the freedom to travel, the freedom from surveillance of their private lives, nor a secure and healthy environment. Democracy is a sham unless it is world democracy. The same is true of family planning knowledge and assistance. The current policies of many nations and the U.N. involve the violation of people’s right to family planning knowledge and resources. Given the population crisis that is rapidly diminishing the life-prospects of everyone on Earth, of the ecosystem of the Earth, and of future generations, these policies constitute a thoughtless attack on the future of our planet, its people, and future generations. The Bill of Rights in the Earth Constitution institutes a complete set of political rights for the first time in history. Many of these rights, such as the right to travel, are impossible under the nation-state system.
We have seen that the entire structure of the Earth Constitution is designed to protect and enforce these rights from every angle possible. The first paragraph of Article 12 reviews and repeats this fact:
It shall be mandatory for the World Parliament, the World Executive, and all organs and agencies of the World Government to honor, implement and enforce these rights, as well as for the national governments of all member nations in the Federation of Earth to do likewise. Individuals or groups suffering violation or neglect of such rights shall have full recourse through the World Ombudsmus, the Enforcement System and the World Courts for redress of grievances.
The Earth Constitution is premised on the interrelated concepts of human dignity and equality as asserted in a variety of ways throughout the document. We have seen that the very first item in Article 12 guarantees “equal rights for all citizens of the Federation of Earth, with no discrimination on grounds of race, color, caste, nationality, sex, religion, political affiliation, or social status.” Each of these differences among human beings has been used as tools of domination and humiliation of some human beings over others, as the work of such scholars as Evelin G. Lindner (2009) has made clear. By privileging some of these differences as mechanisms for the demeaning and disempowering of those not sharing the privileged characteristics, the history of cultures, nations, empires, and legal systems to date has been one sad history of domination and exploitation.
We saw in the Introduction that the Earth Constitution embodies the “third generation” of human rights (only hinted at by Article 28 of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights): the rights to a world of peace, environmental integrity, and reasonable universal prosperity for all persons. Here we see that the Earth Constitution also affirms universal human dignity and equality in ways that lay the foundations of a truly new world. One of the “differences” that has always led to systems of domination, militarized national security states, and hierarchies of humiliation and dehumanization of others is the system of sovereign nation-states in which other nations and peoples are demeaned or dehumanized as “enemies” in the service of the power and domination of elites within the “homeland.” With the ratification of the Earth Constitution, we witness major advance in human liberation. In a discussion concerning universal human rights and their premise of human dignity, Lindner writes:
This liberation offers a number of “sub”-liberations. One such subliberation is the opportunity to free ourselves from the need to pit in-groups against “enemy” out-groups, which in turn liberates us from malign out-group biases. We also have the opportunity to become liberated from collectivist and ranked social models in which a few masters turn underlings into tools in the service of the security dilemma, robbing everybody of their humanity. We stand at a time in history in which we can free everyone on the globe, and we can all retrieve our humanity. In a world of one single human family, no longer do we need to dehumanize young men to become killers of “enemies.” This does not mean that the world will become a rose garden—like in all villages, we will need police in the global village to apply the template of respectful social control. (2009: 75)
This transformation can only come to fruition through ratifying the Earth Constitution. As Lindner asserts, human conflict will not end, nor will human beings suddenly become angels: we still need police. However, as we have seen, the World Police, the Ombudsmus, the Department of Conflict Resolution, and the Bureau of Truth and Reconciliation will be trained in ending mechanisms of humiliation and in protecting human rights with dignity equally for all. We have seen these goals built into the very foundations of the Earth Constitution as specified in Article 1: “To protect universal human rights, including life, liberty, security, democracy, and equal opportunities in life. To obtain for all people on earth the conditions required for equitable economic and social development and for diminishing social differences.” They are elaborated in unambiguous fullness in these all-important Articles: 12 and 13.
9. Article 13: The Second Bill of Rights
We have seen that, given the ravages to the world left by the system of nation-states and global monopoly capitalism, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth wisely separates people’s rights into those political rights of freedom and democracy that are immediately enforceable (Article 12) and those rights (equally important and vital to human life) that the newly formed Earth Federation will be unable to fully guarantee until the global crises have been brought under control (Article 13).
The rights guaranteed in Article 13 show the immense promise and potential for a decent world order under the Earth Federation. We have seen that it is the explicit mandate of the World Ombudsmus and other organs of the Earth Federation to realize the rights named in Article 13 as rapidly as possible. The first paragraph of Article 13 reads:
It shall be the aim of the World Government to secure certain other rights for all inhabitants within the Federation of Earth, but without immediate guarantee of universal achievement and enforcement. These rights are defined as Directive Principles, obligating the World Government to pursue every reasonable means for universal realization and implementation.
This list of 19 additional rights largely includes economic, social, and environmental rights that must be actualized if human beings are going to create a decent civilization for the Earth. People have the right to work with wages “sufficient to ensure human dignity” (abolishing forever the horrors of economic exploitation, sweatshop work, and starvation wages). They have the right to free and adequate public education for everyone on the planet, the right to social security for their old age, the right to free and adequate health-care for all citizens of the Earth Federation, and the right of every child to develop his or her potential.
Among the rights guaranteed by Article 13 and the immediate goals mandated by the Constitution are rights to a decent, safe, and healthy environment. These rights are of course fundamental and self-evident to any thoughtful person. However under the present world system of nation-states and global monopoly capitalism, they are impossible of realization. The so-called right to the unlimited accumulation of private wealth is the only right genuinely recognized by the present world system.
And the present world system actively prevents the realization of the many other rights listed in Articles 12 and 13. The recent failures of the United Nations Climate Change Conferences from Copenhagen in 2009, through Cancún (2010), Durban (2011), and Doha (2012) to the Warsaw Climate Change Conference of 2013 underline this truth once again. Since even before the United Nations Climate Change Conference at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, (likewise an abysmal failure), massive scientific evidence has accumulated showing the need for radical transformation of our economic and political ways of doing things (ways now destroying the planetary environment).
The WCPA had a large booth at the Rio Conference handing out copies of the Earth Constitution and literature concerning the global environmental crisis. Since 1977, it has sent copies of the Earth Constitution repeatedly to U.N. Ambassadors and heads of every nation: it is not as if the people and nations of Earth have not been informed. Yet not only the governments of Earth but its major news outlets have systematically ignored this central way out of the environmental and militarized trap in which the world is presently embroiled.
Not only can nation-states do nothing effective concerning the planetary environment (since they have authority only over their internal territories), they are active contributors to the destruction of the environment as the rich nations use their militarism to protect a system of corporate rapacity that externalizes pollution, toxic wastes, and environmentally destructive practices onto the planet and future generations. This corporate rapacity ensures that billions forever remain in the nightmare of poverty while the world’s elite accumulates unimaginable, unethical, and undemocratic wealth and power at the expense of the vast majority and all future generations.
Militarism itself, rampant and unavoidable among a system of so-called sovereign nation-states, has been shown to be the single most environmentally destructive institution on the planet (Sanders 2009; Parenti 1995). Immense amounts of petroleum, immense quantities of toxic substances, and immense amounts of radioactivity and other deadly agents are released into the environment annually by militaries worldwide, even when no wars are taking place. Under the system of sovereign nation-states, so-called national security trumps protection of the environment every time.
Similarly, multinational corporations use the nation state system to avoid their environmental responsibilities, shifting from one poor country to another with their toxic practices, and the imperial nation-states protect this very system. They fool themselves into believing that the destruction of the environment in poor countries will not impact them or their children in the wealthy fortress countries that they have built for themselves at the expense of the entire world and its future.
Among the 19 rights listed in Article 13 we find the following four:
(8) Protection for everyone against the hazards and perils of technological innovations and developments. (9) Protection of the natural environment which is the common heritage of humanity against pollution, ecological disruption or damage which could imperil life or lower the quality of life. (10) Conservation of those natural resources of Earth which are limited so that present and future generations may continue to enjoy life on the planet Earth. (11) Assurance for everyone of adequate housing, of adequate and nutritious food supplies, of safe and adequate water supplies, of pure air with protection of oxygen supplies and the ozone layer, and in general for the continuance of an environment which can sustain healthy living for all.
Two of the most fundamental rights that people have (rights that provide a framework for everything else) are the right to peace and the right to a clean, healthy environment. The right to peace is so fundamental that the Earth Constitution makes it the very framework of world government: abolishing all military activities from the Earth forever. It recognizes that all military activities are criminal in nature, since war is the attempt to destroy other peoples and their life-support systems outside the rule of civilized law, due process, equal justice, or respect for human dignity.
As we have seen, the right to a clean and healthy environment is violated by both the nation-states and their system of global monopoly capitalism. The Constitution is also designed to ensure the restoration of health to our damaged planet and restore the environment for future generations. We recall that the fifth “broad function” of the Earth Federation as given in Article 1 is “To protect the environment and the ecological fabric of life from all damage.” As we have seen, the Earth Constitution institutionalizes these “third generation rights” only hinted at in Article 28 of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In the second bill of rights (Article 13), this principle is spelled out further in the form of rights guaranteed to all the Earth’s citizens. These rights are summed up by number eleven which recognizes that food supplies, safe and adequate water, pure air, an integral ozone layer, and the global environment are all interconnected and interdependent. This is the principle of interdependence of all life recognized in the Preamble that serves as the fundamental insight of the science of ecology and reveals the holism discovered by every 20th and 21st century science.
The entire planet is an integrated and interdependent ecosystem and every environmentally destructive activity under the present unsustainable world system interacts with others to degrade the entire planetary ecosystem. Every activity from throw-away plastic packaging to gasoline engines to the dumping of toxic wastes to the emission of ozone destroying chemicals to the production of cancer causing compounds contributes to the general degradation of the planet and violates the rights of everyone to a clean and healthy environment.
Just as the right to peace is institutionalized throughout the Earth Constitution, so is the right to a clean and healthy environment. The Constitution sets up the Agency for Technology and Environmental Assessment within the Integrative Complex and the department of Environment and Ecology within the World Administration to monitor the global environment and report to the World Parliament on progress toward actualizing the right to a clean and healthy environment for the people of Earth. Principles of peace, environmental protection, and sustainability are woven into the texture of every article.
For example, among the “specific powers” granted to the world government in Article 4 of the Constitution is number 18 that reads: “Plan for and regulate the development, use, conservation and re-cycling of the natural resources of Earth as the common heritage of Humanity; protect the environment in every way for the benefit of both present and future generations.” The words “environment” or “environmental” appear thirty-five times in the Constitution reflecting a network of provisions such as this one directed to ensuring the people of Earth their right to a clean and healthy environment. Article 13 puts this in the form of rights, but the Constitution itself builds these rights into the very structure of the Earth Federation.
Article 13 also guarantees the “second generation” rights: “the essentially positive economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the rights to education, food, or medical care.” It is in the context of these rights that the concept of human dignity is explicitly raised, as in the very first right specified in this article: “Equal opportunity for useful employment for everyone, with wages or remuneration sufficient to assure human dignity.” The Earth Constitution affirms that human dignity does not end at the guarantee of civil and political rights (as important as these are) but affirms that extreme, involuntary poverty is also a violation of human dignity.
This concept is again specified in 13.13: “social security for everyone to relieve the hazards of unemployment, sickness, old age, family circumstances, disability, catastrophes of nature, and technological change, and to allow retirement with sufficient lifetime income for living under conditions of human dignity during older age.” No longer will older age be grounds for the humiliation of poverty and deprivation for a large portion of humanity. Dignity, as Mortimer J. Adler affirms in the epigraph to this chapter, applies equally to all: equality and dignity are coextensive within the Earth Constitution.
10. Article 14: Safeguards and Reservations for People and Nations
Article 14 guarantees the nations the rights to determine their own economic and political systems within the framework of the human rights guaranteed to everyone by Articles 12 and 13 of the Constitution. It also guarantees that governments within the Earth Federation will be recognized as authoritative within their respective territories and “full faith and credit” is to be given to their decisions, records, legislation, etc.:
The World Government shall operate to secure for all nations and peoples within the Federation of Earth the safeguards which are defined hereunder:
(1) Guarantee that full faith and credit shall be given to the public acts, records, legislation and judicial proceedings of the member nations within the Federation of Earth, consistent with the several provisions of this World Constitution. (2) Assure freedom of choice within the member nations and countries of the Federation of Earth to determine their internal political, economic and social systems, consistent with the guarantees and protections given under this World Constitution to assure civil liberties and human rights and a safe environment for life, and otherwise consistent with the several provisions of this World Constitution…. The powers not delegated to the World Government by this World Constitution shall be reserved to the nations of the Federation of Earth and to the people of Earth.
All nations must be “democratic,” for this is the only system that recognizes these inalienable rights in people. But major variations can and do occur in how democracy is organized and implemented. In addition, there are major disagreements as to what constitutes authentic democracy that must be allowed for within the framework of the Earth Federation. For example, the Revolutionary Committees Movement of Libya (before the recent NATO destruction of the Libyan government and social system) had powerful and legitimate criticisms of the failings of the systems of “representative democracy” that operate in many nations. They argued, during each of my three visits to Libya, that the Libyan system of “direct democracy” was more democratic and more legitimate as an expression of the will of the people than the elitist, often corrupt systems of so-called representative democracy. They certainly had the right, under Article 14, to be part of the Earth Federation and to determine their own political system.
Something similar is the case with economic systems. There is wide debate about what economic system is “more democratic,” more an expression of human freedom, more efficient, etc. As long as the internal systems of nations within the Earth Federation do not interfere with the political, social, and economic rights guaranteed in Articles 12 and 13 of the Constitution, a wide variety of economic and political systems must be welcome within the Earth Federation.
Article 14 asserts the integrity and autonomy of the nation-states within the Earth Federation. Nation-states are only illegitimate when they claim for themselves a spurious “sovereignty” that in effect denies the sovereignty of the people of Earth and claims an arrogant independence from the rest of humanity. Within the Federation of Earth, as territorial units of government, they are not only legitimate but important and necessary.
On each of my six visits to Cuba, the people of Cuba have repeatedly told me that they are a “sovereign nation.” The United States, they said, has no right to sponsor terrorism against Cuba or to economically blockade their country as it has done for more than forty years. What they do not realize is that under the nation-state system there is only the law of power, the law of the jungle. The system of so-called “sovereign nations” is precisely this law of the jungle.
When there is no rule of enforceable law in the world, the powerful presume the “right” to do whatever they please, just as they have stolen Guantanamo Bay from the Cubans. No one can stop them so why shouldn’t they crush weaker countries? The integrity and autonomy of Cuba can only be ensured under an Earth Federation in which the barbaric rule of power and force in the world is replaced by the civilized rule of law.
The entire Earth Constitution (as well as Article 14) is the way out of victimization for smaller and weaker countries in a world of domination. Article 14 is consonant with other features of the Constitution that emphasize the right of diversity and individuality for nations and peoples of the world. The Preamble, we have seen, places the Earth Federation on the bedrock principle of unity in diversity, and Article 13, number 16, sets before world government the goal of “encouragement for cultural diversity” and “decentralized administration.” The Provisional World Parliament has attempted to empower these mandates through organizing the Global People’s Assembly system (WLA # 29) that encourages active participation of citizens in government at all levels as well as by passing the Cooperative Community Empowerment Act at the 13th session which again encourages grassroots involvement of people everywhere.
Good democratic government is necessarily federal in nature. Localities and regions and nations must be able to govern their internal affairs, drawing on their diverse customs, cultures, and traditions. Freedom and community are empowered from the ground up. Article 14 reaffirms this principle of the Earth Federation. Sovereignty belongs to the whole. However, its holism is empowered and shared through affirmation of the diversity of the many.
Article 14 ends with yet another recognition of the sovereignty of the people of Earth. The powers given to the Earth Federation by the Constitution are delegated by the people of Earth, who retain all power to themselves, and all inalienable rights, and delegate only such authority to governments from the local to the mundial level as shall protect their peace, environmental integrity, security, and freedoms. The right of nation-states to determine their own cultural, political, and economic systems also ultimately comes not only from their own people but from the people of Earth.
11. Article 17: The Process of Ratification
The people of Earth must ratify the Constitution through direct referendum. National governments, or their governmental authorities, may give preliminary ratification, for example, by the head of state or by a simple majority vote of the national legislature. Preliminary ratification must be followed by submitting the Constitution to the people in a direct referendum. Ratification will be confirmed by a simple majority vote in which at least twenty-five percent of all eligible voters over the age of eighteen have voted.
Provision number one of Article 17 says that the Constitution will be submitted to each member of the U.N. General Assembly and each national government (this has already been done several times). But it is important to realize that ratification of the Constitution is not dependent on approval by either the U.N. or national governments. Neither of these is a legitimate representative of the sovereignty of the people of Earth. Neither of these has any authority regarding the Constitution. Only the people of Earth in direct referendum may ratify the Constitution. Only the people of Earth have sovereignty. Governments of limited national territories make only illegitimate claims to sovereignty. As we have seen, they may regain legitimacy and a proper measure of shared sovereignty only by joining the Earth Federation. The Constitution represents all the people who live upon the Earth. It is they who have universal inalienable rights and sovereignty, not national governments and certainly not the U.N.
Article 17 allows for preliminary ratification by national governments and then direct referendum by the people of these respective nations. This is for convenience, since many nations have procedures for referendums already set up. But again this is not necessary. If national governments are uncooperative, world electoral districts may be defined and the people may ratify the Constitution directly, irrespective of the national territories in which they happen to live. This might be accomplished today, for example, via the internet.
Article 17 defines three operative stages in the implementation of world government under the Constitution. It recognizes three possible combinations of events that constitute ratification of the Constitution and initiation of the each stage of the Earth Federation. For each stage there may be preliminary or final ratification by so many nation-states. Or there may be a combination of preliminary or final ratification by nation-states along with direct ratification by so many electoral districts. Or there may be direct referendum by so many districts irrespective of whether any nation-states ratify the Constitution.
The powers, organization, and rights of the Earth Federation at each operative stage are defined by Article 17. Full implementation of the Earth Federation is achieved after:
Ratification by eighty percent or more of the nations of Earth comprising at least ninety percent of the population of Earth; or ratification which includes ninety percent of Earth’s total population, either within ratifying nations or within ratifying nations together with additional World Electoral and Administrative Districts where ratification by direct referendum has been accomplished….
At this point, when ninety percent of the Earth’s population have ratified the Constitution in direct referendum, the World Constitution achieves full force as the official government of the Federation of Earth.
The 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament unanimously passed WLA # 53: the Transition Process for National Governments Joining the Earth Federation. This act outlines specific procedures and mechanisms by which any government, democratic or not, can formulate a plan and a timetable for integration into the Earth Federation. It further articulates the road map that Article 17 is intended to be. There is no longer any excuse for nations to refuse to do what is necessary to create a just, peaceful, free, and environmentally sustainable world system.
12. Article 18: Amendments
Some in the movement of world federalism have refused to support the Earth Constitution because they disagree with this or that clause among the hundreds of clauses that make up the document (as if their fantasy of arranging a new Constituent Assembly would produce a another document in which they agreed with every clause). In the face of the increasingly lethal planetary crises that confront humanity, this attitude makes little sense. We need to create genuine, democratic world government as rapidly as possible, for it is the only route that is likely to make human survival both possible and worthwhile. Without world government, even if we survive nuclear holocaust, environmental collapse, or other deadly threats, life will be so degraded that little may be left that will make it worth living for the survivors and future generations.
Irrational as this attitude may be, it is doubly irrational in the face of the broad possibilities built into Article 18 of the Constitution for revision, updating, or amendment. The Constituent Assemblies wisely understood that the technological, social, and environmental conditions on Earth will continue to change rapidly into the foreseeable future. They made it reasonably easy to propose amendments to the Constitution by any house of the world parliament or by any petition of 200,000 Earth Federation Citizens. These proposals then require an absolute 2/3 majority of each of the three houses of Parliament, a somewhat stiffer requirement, but still quite reasonable.
In addition, the founders mandated a complete review conference of the entire Constitution every 20 years, beginning within 10 years of the initiation of the world government in its First Operative Stage. By contrast, the unworkable, undemocratic, and incoherent U.N. Charter has never been reviewed under the option provided in its Articles 108 and 109. The powers that control the U.N. do not want this to happen, and therefore it does not happen. The Earth Constitution must be reviewed within 10 years of its inception, since the intent of the Constitution is to serve the people of Earth as efficiently, justly, and wisely as possible, not to serve the dominant power structures of the old world order. What does not work properly, or is ill-conceived, can and should be changed. As Thomas Jefferson wrote concerning the U.S. Constitution:
Some men look at constitutions with sanctimonious reverence, and deem them like the ark of the Covenant, too sacred to be touched. They ascribe to the men of the preceding age a wisdom more than human, and suppose what they did to be beyond amendment… [L]aws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind…. [A]s that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, institutions must advance also, to keep pace with the times…. We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy as civilized society to remain forever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors. (in E. Brown 2007, pp. 78-79)
The wheel has been invented. It can be used with reasonable efficiency to bring humankind into a new place of peace, justice, prosperity, and sustainability. While no wheel will ever be perfect, and no wheel is suited for every kind of use, it is entirely irrational to insist on reinventing the wheel for any of the trivial reasons that have been given why the world needs to write a new constitution sometime in the future. Institutions must be established, and then “advance” forward, as Jefferson affirms. Precisely the same reasoning applies to the Earth Constitution. It is the wheel necessary and available for moving to a redeemed world order. It has been invented, and now is the time to ratify it and begin forward motion.
13. Article 19: Provisional World Government
Until preliminary ratification of the Constitution occurs, the people of Earth are empowered by Article 19 to begin elaborating Provisional World Government. They are empowered in this by the Constitution but ultimately by their sovereignty. Only human beings representing universal principles can move our planet forward toward practical utopia. The governments and economic institutions of today’s world, we have seen, are illegitimate. By and large, they represent the problem, not the solution.
As the Declaration of the Rights of Peoples confirms (Appendix X), the people of Earth have both the right and the duty to live under the legitimate rule of democratically legislated laws. Since most nation-states serve as an impediment to this right and duty, the people must take upon themselves the task of elaborating democratic world government. Article 19 serves as a guideline for proceeding with this endeavor.
In the literature of nonviolence, this is sometimes referred to as development of a “parallel government” (Sharp 1973). However, Provisional World Government is not parallel to any existing national government, nor is it parallel to the U.N., which is not a government but a treaty of sovereign nation-states. It is, therefore, a movement unique in human history where, for the first time, citizens really begin to take responsibility for the government and future of their planet. As “world citizen number one,” Garry Davis, has pointed out, none of the illegitimate nations can represent us politically, for as citizens of the Earth we have the unique and absolute birthright to govern ourselves and our planet (1984).
Article 19 defines various working commissions that people may set up to facilitate dealing with the global crises beyond the scope of nation-states and with ratification of the Constitution. It defines the manner in which the Provisional World Executive can be created and the responsibilities and duties of this office. It deals with financing for the Provisional World Government, and with the possibility of elaborating a world court system.
Perhaps most importantly, it defines criteria by which a Provisional World Parliament can be created and maintained. This has been the aspect of Provisional World Government that has been elaborated the most. As we have seen, the Parliament has met thirteen times in different locations worldwide from 1982 until 2013. A significant body of provisional world legislation has emerged that should be of great help to the actualized World Parliament when the Constitution is finally ratified in its First Operative Stage. This legislation is not binding on the final World Parliament but powerfully suggestive of the kind of legislation that will need to be immediately adopted. The world will need all the help it can get to pull itself out of military chaos, universal surveillance, population crisis, environmental collapse, global poverty, disease, lack of sanitation, and misery.
The Provisional World Government and the Constitution for the Federation of Earth exist today in a unique and interesting legal status. They have more moral and philosophical legitimacy than any government on Earth, for we have seen that territorial governments cannot themselves be legitimate outside of an Earth Federation representing the sovereignty of the people of Earth. In addition, they have been democratically constructed through a thirty-three year process involving four Constituent Assemblies. They represent the origins, the beginnings, of the historical fulfillment of the human project culminating in a world of peace, justice, freedom, sustainability, and reasonable prosperity for all.
On the other hand, the morally and politically legitimate Earth Constitution does not yet have enforceability, nor is it yet ratified by the people of Earth. Many national governments have effective enforceability for their internal laws. There is no democratic enforceability for anything on a world scale, however, since the only mechanism for such currently involves generalized economic sanctions affecting entire populations or military action against entire countries. Both these U.N. mechanisms for “enforcement” are inhuman (violating peoples’ inherent rights to life, liberty, and security of person) illegitimate, and illegal according to the Earth Constitution.
According to any decent human standards, they are also both deeply immoral. Hence, on the world scale, the only forms of “enforceability” are criminal in nature (violating peoples’ due process rights, rights to be treated as individuals, rights to be presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law, rights to life, liberty, peace, freedom, and a decent environment). Just ask the good people of Iraq (poisoned by depleted uranium) or the good people of Vietnam (poisoned by dioxin infected Agent Orange) how their right to a healthy environment has fared under the nation-state system. The world system as we experience it today is not only illegitimate but criminal in nature. All nations and their leaders who participate in or support this system are complicit in this criminal activity.
On all these grounds, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth and its Provisional World Government activated under Article 19 are more legitimate than any existing laws or governments. We are all morally and politically obligated to live under democratic world government. We are all individually responsible to create a decent future for our children and our planet. The Constitution deserves and demands our civil obedience (our personal ratification and pledge of allegiance) to its higher, legitimate authority.